Figure 1. Due to their small size, a large portion of inhaled NPs can deposit in the distal regions of the lung, at which the aerosolized NPs must interact with the pulmonary surfactant lining layer of alveoli.
Figure 2. Computer-simulated interaction between a hydrophobic nanoparticle (NP) of different surface charges and a pulmonary surfactant film under increasing compression. The three columns show the interaction between the pulmonary surfactant film and a cationic NP (in red), a neutral NP (in black), and an anionic NP (in blue), respectively. In each column, the pulmonary surfactant film is compressed into three stages.