Impact behavior of droplets on a surface is an intriguing research topic, and its control should be very useful in diverse industrial applications. We investigated the impact behavior of water droplets on the textured and chemically treated surface of silicon and obtained the impact mode map on the parameter plane subtended by the Weber number (up to 85) and temperature (up to 320 degrees C). The patterns comprise of micropillars (14 mu m in height) in square lattice with a lattice constant of 10 and 20 mu m, and the surface was further made superhydrophobic by coating with graphene nanosheets. Six distinct impact modes are identified. It was found that the impact mode map can be dramatically altered by modifying the texture and chemistry of the surface, and the observations are well explained with regard to heat transfer, vapor/bubble generation and vapor flow beneath the droplet. Instability in the droplet arising from the mismatch between vapor generation rate and exhaust conditions is the dominant factor in determining the impact mode. Our results revealed more facts and features of the droplet impact phenomenon and can be very useful for target-oriented surface design towards precise control of droplet impact behavior on heated substrates.
This work was financially supported by the National Basic Research Program of China Grant No. 2012CB933002, by the Natural Science Foundation of China Grant Nos. 11290161, 51172272, and 11474335, and by the Knowledge Innovation Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences Grant No. KJZD-EW-M03.