Numerical experiments are carried out using the standard hypersonic ballistic-type model (HB-2) to investigate the effect of forward-facing cavity on the aerodynamic heating. A general concept is proposed which utilizes the flow disturbances generated passively in the nosed subsonic region to weaken the detached shock wave. Several aspects are mainly studied, including shock shape and standoff distance, surface heat flux and pressure, flowfield feature and cooling mechanism. The numerical results indicate that shock strength and standoff distance increase with an increase in the L/D ratio of the cavity. Interestingly, a bulge structure of the detached shock associated with a deep cavity is observed for the first time. Local surface heat flux and pressure around the concave nose are much lower respectively than those at the stagnation point of the baseline model. In addition, both surface heat and pressure reductions are proportional to the L/D ratio. A negative heating phenomenon may occur in the vicinity of a sharp lip or on the base wall of a deep cavity. If the L/D ratio exceeds 0.7, the detached shock appears as a self-sustained oscillation which can be referred to as the cooling mechanism.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11532014).